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Public studies on ingredients:
Animal Study, Bacterial, Human In Vitro, Human Study, In Vitro Study.

Research & Studies:
 

"Do not tell everything. You can be stopped. Truth is not in everyone's interest."

Spirulina increases proliferation of human neural stem cells in vitro and protects against a TNFα insult.

51 Pharmacological Actions Researched for Spirulina:

Antioxidants37101
Hypolipidemic756
Anticholesteremic Agents350
Interleukin-6 Downregulation434
Insulin Sensitizers332
Hepatoprotective1130
Anti-Inflammatory Agents1729
Immunomodulatory524
Antiviral Agents617
Anticarcinogenic Agents416
Superoxide Dismutase Up-regulation416
Apoptotic714
Malondialdehyde Down-regulation314
Neuroprotective Agents814
Antiproliferative613
Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors212
Renoprotective612
Chemopreventive411
Antihypertensive Agents110
Antioxidant Effects110
Interleukin-2 upregulation110
Genoprotective47
Hypoglycemic Agents36
Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) Alpha Inhibitor36
Antioxidant15
Cytoprotective35
MicroRNA modulator15
Anti-Apoptotic24
Anti-atherogenic24
Antimutagenic Agents24
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor modulator24
Cardioprotective24
Chemotherapeutic24
Radioprotective24
Cell cycle arrest23
Cytotoxic13
Anti-Angiogenic12
Anti-pyretic12
Catalase Up-Regulation12
Fertility Agents: Female12
Gastroprotective12
Photoprotective12
Prophylactic Agents12
Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Inhibitors12
Alpha-glucosidase inhibitor11
Anti-metastatic11
Antimicrobial11
Autophagy Inhibitors11
Enzyme Inhibitors11
Histone deacetylase inhibitor11
Pancreato Protective Agents11

Chromatographic profile of the Spirulina platensis.. From: In vitro activity of Spirulina platensis water extract against different Candida species isolated from vulvo-vaginal candidiasis cases. Upper panel: spectrum (350 to 850 nm) of the Spirulina platensis extract analyzed. Lower panel: spectrum (350 to 850 nm) of the 80% acetone extract of Spirulina platensis, used for the quantification of the total chlorophylls. Chlorophyll A (Cla) and B (Clb) profile in the Spirulina platensis analyzed
Spirulina extract inhibits influenza virus infection by disrupting hemagglutination.
Effects of fish oil and spirulina on oxidative stress and inflammation in hypercholesterolemic hamsters. Effect of fish oil, spirulina, and their combination on lipid peroxidation expressed as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in liver. Data are presented as mean ± SD (n = 12/group). Values not sharing the same letter are significantly different at p < 0.05. HF: high fat diet + cholesterol; post FO: fish oil diet after induction with HF diet; post SP: spirulina diet after induction with HF diet; Post SF: spirulina and fish oil diet after induction with HF diet; Pre-SF: pre-treatment with spirulina and fish oil diet before induction with HF diet; HF + SF: HF diet combined with spirulina and fish oil. Miriam Adoyo Muga, et al. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2014;14:470.
Spirulina platensis Lacks Antitumor Effect against Solid Ehrlich Carcinoma in Female Mice. Histopathological examination of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) solid tumor. Representative sections were obtained from (a) untreated EAC-bearing mice (arrows: infiltration of subcutaneous tissue with tumor cells), (b) untreated EAC-bearing mice (arrows: newly formed blood capillaries; arrowheads: leukocyte infiltration), (c) EAC tumor-bearing mice treated with 5-fluorouracil 20 mg/kg (arrowheads: extensive necrosis; arrow: fibrosis; M: skeletal muscles), (d) EAC tumor-bearing mice treated with 5-fluorouracil 20 mg/kg (irregular arrow: destructed blood vessels and hemorrhage), (e) EAC tumor-bearing mice treated with spirulina 200 mg/kg (arrows: extensive infiltration of the subcutaneous tissue with tumor cells), (f) EAC tumor-bearing mice treated with spirulina 200 mg/kg (arrows: tumor cells with cellular anaplasia and anisocytosis), (g) EAC tumor-bearing mice treated with spirulina 800 mg/kg (arrows: moderate infiltration of the tumor cells; arrowhead: numerous leukocyte infiltration), (h) EAC tumor-bearing mice treated with spirulina 800 mg/kg (arrows: huge numbers of tumor cells infiltrating the skeletal muscles), (i) EAC tumor-bearing mice treated with 5-fluorouracil 20 mg/kg plus spirulina 200 mg/kg (arrows: less infiltration with tumor cells; N: extensive necrosis and fibrosis), and (j) EAC tumor-bearing mice treated with 5-fluorouracil 20 mg/kg plus spirulina 200 mg/kg (arrows: islets of viable tumor cells; N: extensive necrosis). Sections were stained with HE dyes (scale bar = 50 μM). Waleed Barakat, et al. Adv Pharmacol Sci. 2015;2015:132873.
Surface decoration by Spirulina polysaccharide enhances the cellular uptake and anticancer efficacy of selenium nanoparticles
Antioxidant, Immunomodulating, and Microbial-Modulating Activities of the Sustainable and Ecofriendly Spirulina. Microbial-modulating activities of Spirulina could prevent dysbiosis. The antibacterial activity of Spirulina could protect the host by infections. Changes in microbiota composition are commonly associated with several several diseases including inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) and metabolic and immunological diseases. Alterations of gut microbial composition also result in changes in the metabolites generated in the gut from microbial activity, essential for a correct gut homeoastasis. Spirulina intake may favour a restabilishment of correct microbial balance by promoting probiotic species growth. Alberto Finamore, et al. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2017;2017:3247528
Spirulina is produced from pure cultures of the photosynthetic prokaryotic cyanobacteria Arthrospira. For many years research centers throughout the world have studied its application in various scientific fields, especially in foods and medicine. The biomass produced from Spirulina cultivation contains a variety of biocompounds, including biopeptides, biopolymers, carbohydrates, essential fatty acids, minerals, oligoelements, and sterols. Some of these compounds are bioactive and have anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antioxidant, and antifungal properties. These compounds can be used in tissue engineering, the interdisciplinary field that combines techniques from cell science, engineering, and materials science and which has grown in importance over the past few decades.

Spirulina

There are 118 good studies at Spirulina. Here's a selection:
Abstracts with Spirulina Research

2017
Spirulina maxima improves insulin sensitivity, lipid profile, and total antioxidant status in obese patients with well-treated hypertension.
Abstract Title:
Spirulina maxima improves insulin sensitivity, lipid profile, and total antioxidant status in obese patients with well-treated hypertension: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study.
Abstract Source:
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2017 May ;21(10):2473-2481. PMID: 28617537
Abstract Author(s):
M Szulinska, M Gibas-Dorna, E Miller-Kasprzak, J Suliburska, A Miczke, M Walczak-Gałezewska, M Stelmach-Mardas, J Walkowiak, P Bogdanski
Article Affiliation:
M Szulinska
Abstract:
OBJECTIVE: Spirulina maxima consumption is known to be associated with enhanced cardiovascular and metabolic health. Human studies on this topic have recently been described in a few papers; however, potential protective cardiovascular properties of Spirulina in obese patients receiving standard pharmacological antihypertensive treatment remain to be elucidated. Putative beneficial cardiovascular effects of Spirulina supplementation in well treated, obesity-related hypertension were studied in a double-blind placebo-controlled trial.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Total 50 obese subjects with treated hypertension, each randomized to receive 2 g of Spirulina or a placebo daily, for three months. At baseline and after treatment anthropometric parameters, plasma lipid levels, inflammation, and oxidative stress biomarkers along with insulin sensitivity estimated by euglycemic clamp were assessed.
RESULTS: After three months of Spirulina supplementation significant decrease in body mass (p<0.001), body mass index (BMI; p<0.001) and waist circumference (WC; p = 0.002) were observed in Spirulina group. Spirulina had also significant, lowering effect on low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C; p<0.001) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) concentration (p = 0.002) in supplemented patients compared to placebo group. Spirulina supplementation considerably improved total antioxidant status (TAS; p = 0.001) and insulin sensitivity ratio (M; p<0.001) in Spirulina group compared to placebo-treated individuals.
CONCLUSIONS: The favorable influence of Spirulina supplementation on insulin sensitivity, plasma lipid levels along with inflammation and oxidative stress biomarkers reported in this study creates the promise for new therapeutic approaches in obese patients with well-treated hypertension.
Article Published Date : Apr 30, 2017
Study Type : Meta Analysis
Additional Links
Substances : Spirulina : CK(340) : AC(95)
Diseases : Hypertension : CK(2984) : AC(406), Insulin Resistance : CK(1683) : AC(346), Obesity : CK(2443) : AC(521)
Pharmacological Actions : Anticholesteremic Agents : CK(1459) : AC(264), Antioxidants : CK(8430) : AC(3132), Insulin Sensitizers : CK(350) : AC(70), Interleukin-6 Downregulation : CK(1137) : AC(354)
____________________________________________

2015
This meta-analysis showed a significant effect of supplementation with Spirulina in reducing plasma concentrations of total cholesterol, LDL-C, triglycerides and elevating those of HDL-C.
Abstract Title:
A systematic review and meta-analysis of the impact of Spirulina supplementation on plasma lipid concentrations.
Abstract Source:
Clin Nutr. 2015 Sep 25. Epub 2015 Sep 25. PMID: 26433766
Abstract Author(s):
Maria-Corina Serban, Amirhossein Sahebkar, Simona Dragan, Gheorghe Stoichescu-Hogea, Sorin Ursoniu, Florina Andrica, Maciej Banach
Article Affiliation:
Maria-Corina Serban
Abstract:
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The impact of Spirulina supplementation on plasma lipid concentrations has not been conclusively studied. Therefore the aim of the meta-analysis was to assess the effect of Spirulina supplementation on plasma lipid concentrations.
METHODS: We searched PubMed and Scopus (up to July 03, 2015) to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that investigate the effect Spirulina supplementation on plasma lipid concentrations. Meta-analysis and meta-regression were performed using random-effects models.
RESULTS: Random-effect meta-analysis of data from 7 RCTs showed a significant effect of supplementation with spirulina in reducing plasma concentrations of total cholesterol (WMD: -46.76 mg/dL, 95% CI: -67.31 to -26.22, p < 0.001), LDL-C (WMD: -41.32 mg/dL, 95% CI: -60.62 to -22.03, p < 0.001) and triglycerides (WMD: -44.23 mg/dL, 95% CI: -50.22 to -38.24, p < 0.001), and elevating those of HDL-C (WMD: 6.06 mg/dL, 95% CI: 2.37-9.76, p = 0.001). The impact of spirulina on plasma concentrations of total cholesterol (slope: -1.32; 95% CI: -8.58 to 5.93; p = 0.720), LDL-C (slope: -1.01; 95% CI: -8.03 to 6.02; p = 0.778), triglycerides (slope: -1.39; 95% CI: -4.26 to 1.48; p = 0.342) and HDL-C (slope: 1.79, 95% CI: -0.48 to 4.05; p = 0.122) was independent of administered dose. Regarding duration of supplementation with Spirulina, significant associations were found with changes in plasma concentrations of total cholesterol (slope: -1.77; 95% CI: -3.48 to -0.07; p = 0.042), LDL-C (slope: -1.73; 95% CI: -3.40 to -0.06; p = 0.042) HDL-C (slope: 0.91; 95% CI: 0.68-1.14; p < 0.001) and triglycerides (slope: -1.39; 95% CI: -2.28 to -0.50; p = 0.002).
CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis showed a significant effect of supplementation with Spirulina in reducing plasma concentrations of total cholesterol, LDL-C, triglycerides and elevating those of HDL-C.
Article Published Date : Sep 24, 2015
Study Type : Meta Analysis, Review
Additional Links
Substances : Spirulina : CK(340) : AC(95)
Diseases : Cholesterol: High : CK(1226) : AC(195), Triglycerides: Elevated : CK(718) : AC(117)
Pharmacological Actions : Anticholesteremic Agents : CK(1459) : AC(264), Hypolipidemic : CK(1288) : AC(265)
____________________________________________

2015
Daily supplementation with S. platensis to diet combined with a reasonable balanced diet has significantly increased the CD4 cells and reduced the viral load after 6 months.
Abstract Title:
Impact of daily supplementation of Spirulina platensis on the immune system of naïve HIV-1 patients in Cameroon: a 12-months single blind, randomized, multicenter trial.
Abstract Source:
Nutr J. 2015 ;14:70. Epub 2015 Jul 21. PMID: 26195001
Abstract Author(s):
Marthe-Elise Ngo-Matip, Constant Anatole Pieme, Marcel Azabji-Kenfack, Bruno Moukette Moukette, Emmanuel Korosky, Philippe Stefanini, Jeanne Yonkeu Ngogang, Carl Moses Mbofung
Article Affiliation:
Marthe-Elise Ngo-Matip
Abstract:
BACKGROUND: Micronutrient deficiencies occur early in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infections they have reverse effects on the nutritional status. The diet supplementation with a natural nutraceutical rich in proteins and micronutrient like Spirulina platensis, may be effective and efficient in delaying HIV disease progression by frequently reported improvement in immune response.
METHODS: A prospective single-blind, randomized, multicenter study conducted on 320 HIV-1 ARV-naïve participants for 12 months. Participants received either S. platensis supplementation and standard care or standard care and local balanced diet without S. platenis. Selected hematological and biochemical as well as CD4 count cells, viral load copies were assessed at three separate times.
RESULTS: Among the 169 ART-naïve participants enrolled in the study, the female was mostly represented (67.1%). The significant increase of CD4 count cells (596.32-614.92 cells count) and significant decrease of viral load levels (74.7 × 10(3)-30.87 × 10(3) copies/mL) of the patients who received a supplementation ofS. platensis was found after 6 months of treatment. Haemoglobin level was also significantly higher in the same group while the fasting blood glucose concentration decreased after 12 months compared to control.
CONCLUSION: A daily supplementation with S. platensis to diet combined with a reasonable balanced diet has significantly increased the CD4 cells and reduced the viral load after 6 months. Further studies are recommended among a large specific group of people infected by the HIV in order to investigate the mechanisms involved on the effect of S. platensis on immune system.
Article Published Date : Dec 31, 2014
Study Type : Human Study
Additional Links
Substances : Spirulina : CK(340) : AC(95)
Diseases : HIV Infections : CK(680) : AC(219)
Pharmacological Actions : Immunomodulatory : CK(1287) : AC(358)
____________________________________________
2015

Regular consumption of Spirulina improves BMI and weight and also results in improvements in blood pressure and endothelial function.
Abstract Source:
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2016 Jan ;20(1):150-6. PMID: 26813468
Abstract Author(s):
A Miczke, M Szulińska, R Hansdorfer-Korzon, M Kręgielska-Narożna, J Suliburska, J Walkowiak, P Bogdański
Article Affiliation:
A Miczke
Abstract:
OBJECTIVE: Some studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of Spirulina maxima (Arthrospira maxima) consumption on glycemic, lipid, and blood pressure parameters. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Spirulina maxima on body weight, blood pressure, and endothelial function.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial, 40 patients with hypertension but lacking evidence of cardiovascular disease were enrolled to receive daily either 2.0 g Hawaiian spirulina or placebo for three months. Anthropometric parameters, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and stiffness index (SI) using digital plethysmography were measured before and after the intervention.
RESULTS: After three months, there was no change in body mass index (BMI) or weight in either the spirulina or the placebo group. However, a significant reduction in SBP and SI was observed. The patients in the spirulina group showed significant reductions in BMI (26.9± 3.1 vs. 25.0 ± 2.7 kg/m2, p = 0.0032), weight (75.5 ± 11.8 vs. 70.5 ± 10.3 kg, p<0.001), SBP (149± 7 vs. 143 ± 9 mmHg, p = 0.0023), and SI (7.2 ± 0.6 vs. 6.9 ± 0.7 m/s, p<0.001). The tested parameters did not change in the placebo group.
CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that three months of regular consumption of Spirulina maxima not only improves BMI and weight but also results in improvements in blood pressure and endothelial function spirulina in overweight patients with hypertension but lacking evidence of cardiovascular disease.
Article Published Date : Dec 31, 2015
Study Type : Human Study
Additional Links
Substances : Spirulina : CK(340) : AC(95)
Diseases : Hypertension : CK(2984) : AC(406)
Pharmacological Actions : Antihypertensive Agents : CK(1178) : AC(164)
Additional Keywords : Anti-Obesity Agents : CK(979) : AC(259)

More links:
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/?term=spirulina
http://www.greenmedinfo.com/substance/spirulina





Spiulina 
______________________
PubMed
PubMed comprises more than 28 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. 
In PubMed
There are  1707 on Spirulina.
_____________________

109 Diseases Researched for Spirulina:
Oxidative Stress1637
Insulin Resistance434
Obesity332
Hypertension230
Triglycerides: Elevated230
HIV Infections422
Cholesterol: High120
Colitis314
Dyslipidemias212
Inflammation712
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)212
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease211
Anemia: Sickle Cell110
Carotenoid Deficiency: Zeaxanthin110
Colitis: Mucous110
Fatigue110
High Cholesterol110
Irritable Bowel Syndrome110
Leukoplakia110
Mental Fatigue110
Oral Cancer: Prevention110
Quality of Life: Poor110
Vitamin A Deficiency110
Cadmium Poisoning59
Memory Disorders36
Pancreatic Cancer26
Lead Poisoning35
Liver Cancer35
Ovarian Cancer15
Atherosclerosis24
Diabetes: Oxidative Stress24
High Fat Diet24
Hyperglycemia24
Neurodegenerative Diseases24
Parkinson's Disease24
Pesticide Toxicity24
Tuberculosis Drug Induced Toxicity24
Arsenic Poisoning23
Brain Inflammation23
Breast Cancer23
Diabetes Mellitus: Type 223
Influenza A23
Lipid Peroxidation23
Mercury Poisoning23
Vulvar Cancer13
Aging12
Aging: Brain12
Alzheimer's Disease12
Animal Diseases: Infectious12
Antibiotic Toxicity12
Arthritis12
Benzo[a]pyrene-induced Toxicity12
Brain: Microglial Activation12
Cardiotoxicity: Chemotherapy-Induced12
Cardiovascular Disease: Prevention12
Cardiovascular Diseases12
Chemically-Induced Liver Damage12
Chemotherapy-Induced Toxicity: Doxorubicin12
Cognitive Decline/Dysfunction12
Colon Cancer22
Colon Cancer: Prevention12
Colon Polyps12
Cytomegalovirus Infections22
Diabetes Mellitus: Type 112
Diabetic Complications12
Drug-Induced Toxicity: Methotrexate12
Endothelial Dysfunction12
Fatty Liver12
Fluoride Toxicity12
Fructose-Induced Toxicity12
Gastric Ulcer12
Hearing Loss12
High Fructose Diet12
Hypercholesterolemia12
Hyperlipidemia12
Infertility: Female12
Kidney Damage: Drug-Induced12
Leptin: Elevated Levels12
Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Toxicity12
Metabolic Syndrome X12
Nutritional Deficiencies12
Skin Cancer12
Tinnitus12
Ultraviolet Radiation Induced Damage12
Allergic Rhinitis21
Anemia11
Atrial Fibrillation11
Bacillus Cereus infection11
Brain: Oxidative Stress11
Cardiac Arrhythmias11
Cardiac Hypertrophy11
DNA damage11
Diabetes Mellitus: Type 2: Prevention11
Gastric Cancer11
HSV-111
Herpes Labialis11
Herpes Simplex Virus Type 111
Lung Cancer11
Measles11
Mitochondrial Dysfunction11
Mumps11
Oral Submucous Fibrosis11
Periodontitis11
Radiation Induced Illness11
Staphylococcus aureus infection11
Tendinopathy11
Tendon Injury11
Vitamin B 12 Deficiency11
Wound Healing11

Spirulina: Converting Sunshine to Superfood
Biosorption of Microelements by Spirulina: Towards Technology of Mineral Feed Supplements. X-ray spectrum, mineral trace analysis of Spirulina sp. surface. (a) pristine microalgae biomass; Spirulina sp. enriched in (b) Co(II) ions, (c) Cu(II) ions, (d) Mn(II) ions, and (e) Zn(II) ions; (f) Spirulina sp. enriched in all Co(II), Cu(II), Mn(II), and Zn(II) ions. Agnieszka Dmytryk, et al. ScientificWorldJournal. 2014;2014:356328
Biological Effects of Spirulina (Arthrospira) Biopolymers and Biomass in the Development of Nanostructured Scaffolds. Nanofibers produced with 65% polyethylene oxide and 35% Spirulina LEB 18 biomass (a), nanofibers incorporating 25% LEB 18 polyhydroxybutyrate and 5% LEB 18 biomass (b), and optical image of PHB nanofibers incorporating Spirulina LEB 18 biomass. 2,000x magnification (c). Michele Greque de Morais, et al. Biomed Res Int. 2014;2014:762705.
Biosorption of Microelements by Spirulina: Towards Technology of Mineral Feed Supplements. Normalized FTIR absorption spectrum of selected functional groups exposed on cell wall surface of microalgae biomass. A (green line) pristine Spirulina sp., B (pink line) pristine Spirulina maxima and C (blue line) Cu(II)-enriched Spirulina maxima. Agnieszka Dmytryk, et al. ScientificWorldJournal. 2014;2014:356328.
Production and characterization of antimicrobial active substance from Spirulina platensis . Antimicrobial activities of different solvents extracts of Spirulina platensis (A). water immiscible solvents (B). water miscible solvents Mostafa M. El-Sheekh, et al. Iran J Microbiol. 2014 Apr;6(2):112-119.

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