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Papaya-Carica papaya

There are 61  good studies at Papaya. Here's a selection:
Abstracts with Papaya Research

Aqueous C. papaya roots preparations might have therapeutic potential as a supplement that can be applied in arsenic poisoning.
Abstract Title:
Aqueous extract ofLinn. roots potentially attenuates arsenic induced biochemical and genotoxic effects in Wistar rats.
Abstract Source:
J Tradit Complement Med. 2018 Apr ;8(2):324-334. Epub 2017 Sep 9. PMID: 29736388
Abstract Author(s):
Oluwafemi Adeleke Ojo, Adebola Busola Ojo, Olayinka Awoyinka, Basiru Olaitan Ajiboye, Babatunji Emmanuel Oyinloye, Olukemi Adetutu Osukoya, Israel Idowu Olayide, Adejoke Ibitayo
Article Affiliation:
Oluwafemi Adeleke Ojo
In Africa, the fruit, leaf, seed and roots ofLinn. are generally used to treat a variety of diseases such as malaria, cancer, and cardiovascular diseases. In this study, we evaluated the protective potentials of aqueous extract ofroots on arsenic-induced biochemical and genotoxic effects in Wistar rats. Rats were induced intraperitoneal with sodium arsenate (dissolved in distilled water at 3 mg/kg body weight) for 21 days and the animals were administered simultaneously with 200 mg/kg body weight vitamin C, 100 and 150 mg/kg body weight of theLinn. root aqueous extract once daily for three weeks. Results obtained reveals that activities of plasma 8-OHdG, serum lipids concentration, atherogenic index (AI), coronary artery index (CRI), aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, total bilirubin levels were elevated significantly ( < 0.05) and catalase, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, plasma hematological profile were progressively reduced ( < 0.05) in arsenic-alone exposed rats. Significant increase in the quantity of chromosomal aberrations (CA), micronuclei (MN) frequency, oxidative damages in the bone marrow cells from arsenic alone rats was observed. Though, mitotic index scores in these cells were progressively reduced (p < 0.05). In animals administered with aqueous extract ofroots and vitamin C, the altered parameters were significantly recovered towards the levels observed in normal control rats. These results suggest that aqueousroots preparations might have therapeutic potential as a supplement that can be applied in arsenic poisoning.
Article Published Date : Mar 31, 2018
Study Type : Animal Study
Additional Links
Substances : Papaya : CK(112) : AC(52)
Diseases : Arsenic Poisoning : CK(160) : AC(49)
Pharmacological Actions : Genoprotective : CK(270) : AC(97)
Problem Substances : Arsenic : CK(152) : AC(30)

Fermented papaya extracts can protect the mammary glands and other visceral organs from oxidative damage.​​​​​​​
Abstract Title:
Modulatory Effect of Fermented Papaya Extracts on Mammary Gland Hyperplasia Induced by Estrogen and Progestin in Female Rats.
Abstract Source:
Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2017 ;2017:8235069. Epub 2017 Nov 20. PMID: 29359010
Abstract Author(s):
Zhenqiang You, Junying Sun, Feng Xie, Zhiqin Chen, Sheng Zhang, Hao Chen, Fang Liu, Lili Li, Guocan Chen, Yisheng Song, Yaoxian Xuan, Gaoli Zheng, Yanfei Xin
Article Affiliation:
Zhenqiang You
Fermented papaya extracts (FPEs) are obtained by fermentation of papaya by Aspergillus oryzae and yeasts. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of FPEs on mammary gland hyperplasia induced by estrogen and progestogen. Rats were randomly divided into 6 groups, including a control group, an FPE-alone group, a model group, and three FPE treatment groups (each receiving 30, 15, or 5 ml/kg FPEs). Severe mammary gland hyperplasia was induced upon estradiol benzoate and progestin administration. FPEs could improve the pathological features of the animal model and reduce estrogen levels in the serum. Analysis of oxidant indices revealed that FPEs could increase superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities, decrease malondialdehyde (MDA) level in the mammary glands and serum of the animal models, and decrease the proportion of cells positive for the oxidative DNA damage marker 8-oxo-dG in the mammary glands. Additionally, estradiol benzoate andprogestin altered the levels of serum biochemical compounds such as aspartate transaminase (AST), total bilirubin (TBIL), and alanine transaminase (ALT), as well as hepatic oxidant indices such as SOD, GSH-Px, MDA, and 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dG). These indices reverted to normal levels uponoral administration of a high dose of FPEs. Taken together, our results indicate that FPEs can protect the mammary glands and other visceral organs from oxidative damage.
Article Published Date : Dec 31, 2016
Study Type : Animal Study
Additional Links
Substances : Fermented Foods and Beverages : CK(1132) : AC(249), Papaya : CK(112) : AC(52)
Diseases : Breast Cancer : CK(3592) : AC(1064), DNA damage : CK(1017) : AC(387), Oxidative Stress : CK(3871) : AC(1382)
Pharmacological Actions : Anticarcinogenic Agents : CK(1099) : AC(519)

Papaya juice has antioxidant activity comparable in efficacy and safety to vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol).​​​​​​​
Abstract Title:
Antioxidant potentials of Iranian Carica papaya juice in vitro and in vivo are comparable to alpha-tocopherol.
Abstract Source:
Phytother Res. 2006 Jul;20(7):591-4. PMID: 16691628
Abstract Author(s):
Sanaz Mehdipour, Narges Yasa, Gholamreza Dehghan, Reza Khorasani, Azadeh Mohammadirad, Roja Rahimi, Mohammad Abdollahi
Article Affiliation:
Laboratory of Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, and Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
Carica papaya is widely cultivated throughout the world and is used as a food and also as a traditional medicine, particularly as an antiseptic and contraceptive. The present study was designed to explore the toxicological and antioxidant potential of dried C. papaya juice in vitro and in vivo. The oral LD(50) of the juice of C. papaya was determined, and the antioxidant potentials determined by DPPH and FRAP tests. In vivo examination was performed after oral administration of dried papaya juice to rats for 2 weeks at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg. Blood TBARS and FRAP assays were used to determine the potential of the juice to act against oxidative stress. The acute toxicity test (LD(50)) demonstrated that papaya juice is not lethal up to a dose of 1500 mg/kg after oral administration and thus is considered nontoxic. In treated groups, no sign of toxicity was observed. In vitro evaluation of the antioxidant effects of papaya showed that the highest antioxidant activity (80%) was observed with a concentration of 17.6 mg/mL. Blood lipid peroxidation levels decreased significantly after administration of all doses of papaya juice (100, 200, 400 mg/kg/day) to 35.5%, 39.5% and 40.86% of the control, respectively, compared with a value of 28.8% for vitamin E. The blood total antioxidant power was increased significantly by all doses of papaya juice (100, 200, 400 mg/kg/day) to 11.11%, 23.58% and 23.14% of the control, respectively. The value for vitamin E was 18.44%. This preliminary study indicates the safety and antioxidative stress potential of the juice of C. papaya, which was found to be comparable to the standard antioxidant compound alpha-tocopherol.
Article Published Date : Jul 01, 2006
Study Type : Animal Study
Additional Links
Substances : Papaya : CK(112) : AC(52)
Diseases : Oxidative Stress : CK(3871) : AC(1382)
Pharmacological Actions : Antioxidants : CK(8430) : AC(3132)
Papaya seed extract inhibits gene transfer from Salmonella typhimurium to Escherichia coli in vitro and in the digestive tract of gnotobiotic mice.​​​​​​​
Abstract Title:
Carica papaya seed macerate as inhibitor of conjugative R plasmid transfer from Salmonella typhimurium to Escherichia coli in vitro and in the digestive tract of gnotobiotic mice.
Abstract Source:
J Gen Appl Microbiol. 2005 Feb;51(1):21-6. PMID: 15864757
Abstract Author(s):
Ana A M Leite, Regina M D Nardi, Jacques R Nicoli, Edmar Chartone-Souza, Andréa M A Nascimento
Article Affiliation:
Departamento de Biologia Geral, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil.
In this study, the effect of Carica papaya seed macerate on conjugal R plasmid transfer from Salmonella typhimurium to Escherichia coli was investigated in vitro and in the digestive tract of gnotobiotic mice. Twenty-five micrograms per milliliter and 430 mg (administered intragastrically twice a day) of papaya seed macerate concentrations were used during conjugation for in vitro and in vivo assays, respectively. High frequency of conjugation inhibition by macerate was observed for both in vitro and in vivo experiments, independently of bacterial growth and mating conditions. Papaya seed macerate caused a reduction of the transconjugant population ranging from 71% to about 100%. There was no lethal effect of the seed macerate on donor or recipient cells in the concentrations used. Once the mechanisms and magnitude of resistance gene transfer are clearly understood, strategies to reduce or minimize the dissemination of these genes could be relevant. The data here obtained show a clinical potential use of papaya seed macerate on this transfer.
Article Published Date : Feb 01, 2005
Study Type : Animal Study
Additional Links
Substances : Papaya : CK(112) : AC(52)
Diseases : Salmonella Infections : CK(57) : AC(35)
Additional Keywords : Plant Extracts : CK(7645) : AC(2539)

Carica papaya (Caricaceae) leaf extract has anti-chikungunya virus activity.
Abstract Title:
Bioefficacy of larvicdial and pupicidal properties of Carica papaya (Caricaceae) leaf extract and bacterial insecticide, spinosad, against chikungunya vector, Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).
Abstract Source:
Parasitol Res. 2012 Feb ;110(2):669-78. Epub 2011 Jul 13. PMID: 21750871
Abstract Author(s):
Kalimuthu Kovendan, Kadarkarai Murugan, Arjunan Naresh Kumar, Savariar Vincent, Jiang-Shiou Hwang
Article Affiliation:
Kalimuthu Kovendan
The present study was carried out to establish the properties of Carica papaya leaf extract and bacterial insecticide, spinosad on larvicidal and pupicidal activity against the chikungunya vector, Aedes aegypti. The medicinal plants were collected from the area around Bharathiar University, Coimbatore, India. C. papaya leaf was washed with tap water and shade-dried at room temperature. An electrical blender powdered the dried plant materials (leaves). The powder (500 g) of the leaf was extracted with 1.5 l of organic solvents of methanol for 8 h using a Soxhlet apparatus and then filtered. The crude leaf extracts were evaporated to dryness in a rotary vacuum evaporator. The plant extract showed larvicidal and pupicidal effects after 24 h of exposure; however, the highest larval and pupal mortality was found in the leaf extract of methanol C. papaya against the first- to fourth-instar larvae and pupae of values LC(50) = I instar was 51.76 ppm, II instar was 61.87 ppm, III instar was 74.07 ppm, and IV instar was 82.18 ppm, and pupae was 440.65 ppm, respectively, and bacterial insecticide, spinosad against the first to fourth instar larvae and pupae of values LC(50) = I instar was 51.76 ppm, II instar was61.87 ppm, III instar was 74.07 ppm, and IV instar was 82.18 ppm, and pupae was 93.44 ppm, respectively. Moreover, combined treatment of values of LC(50) = I instar was 55.77 ppm, II instar was 65.77 ppm, III instar was 76.36 ppm, and IV instar was 92.78 ppm, and pupae was 107.62 ppm, respectively. No mortality was observed in the control. The results that the leaves extract of C. papaya and bacterial insecticide, Spinosad is promising as good larvicidal and pupicidal properties of against chikungunya vector, A. aegypti. This is an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of chikungunyavector, A. aegypti as target species of vector control programs.
Article Published Date : Jan 31, 2012
Study Type : Viral
Additional Links
Substances : Papaya : CK(112) : AC(52)
Diseases : Chikungunya Virus : CK(14) : AC(11)
Pharmacological Actions : Antiviral Agents : CK(938) : AC(433)
Additional Keywords : Plant Extracts : CK(7645) : AC(2539)

You will find much more in the following links on the Papaya:

Genome-wide identification and characterization of auxin response factor (ARF) family genes related to flower and fruit development in papaya (Carica papaya L.).


Papaya/Carica papaya

PubMed comprises more than 28 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. 
In PubMed
There are  2091 on Papaya.

54 Diseases Researched for Papaya
Oxidative Stress719
Breast Cancer: Prevention110
Cervical Dysplasia110
Skin Ulcer110
Cancers: All26
Wound Healing35
Chemically-Induced Liver Damage24
Candida Infection33
Pseudomonas aeruginosa33
Acetaminophen (Tylenol) Toxicity12
Alcohol Toxicity12
Bacterial Infections and Mycoses22
Benzo[a]pyrene-induced Toxicity12
DNA damage12
Diabetic Ulcer12
Fungal Infection22
Gastric Ulcer12
Iron Overload12
Parasitic Intestinal Diseases32
Prostate Cancer22
Salmonella Infections12
Uterus: Contraction/Expulsion Disorders12
Wound Healing: Delayed12
Breast Cancer11
Candida Albicans11
Candida Glabrata11
Chikungunya Virus11
Dengue Fever11
Endothelial Dysfunction11
Escherichia coli Infections11
Foodborne Pathogens: Prevention/Food Preservation11
Gluten Sensitivity11
Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections11
Immune Dysregulation: TH1/TH2 imbalance11
Liver Cancer11
Low Disorders: Low TH111
Neurodegenerative Diseases11
Parasitic Diseases11
Promyelocytic leukemia11
Prostatic Hyperplasia: Benign11
Pseudomonas Infections11
Squamous cell carcinoma11
Staphylococcal Infections11
Staphylococcus aureus infection11

21 Pharmacological Actions Researched for Papaya.
Anti-Bacterial Agents56
Anti-Inflammatory Agents56
Antifungal Agents33
Antiviral Agents33
Adrenergic alpha-Agonists12
Iron Chelating Agents12
NF-kappaB Inhibitor22
Antiparasitic Agents11
Cell cycle arrest11
Enzyme Inhibitors11
Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) inhibitor11
Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) Alpha Inhibitor11

Papain-like cysteine proteases in Carica papaya: lineage-specific gene duplication and expansion.
Genome-wide transcriptome profiling of Carica papaya L. embryogenic callus. KEGG pathway annotation of expressed and non-expressed genes in papaya embryogenic callus Nur Diyana Jamaluddin, et al. Physiol Mol Biol Plants. 2017 Apr;23(2):357-368.
Ripening-induced chemical modifications of papaya pectin inhibit cancer cell proliferation. Representative topographical AFM images of papaya water-soluble pectins. (A) 1PP sample topography, height profile and length frequency. 1PP had linear chains and micellar aggregates. (B) 3PP sample topography, height profile and length frequency. 3PP had both chains length and micellar aggregates decrease. PP: papaya pectin (water-soluble fraction). Representative image of, at least, two experiments from the biological samples. Samira Bernardino Ramos do Prado, et al. Sci Rep. 2017;7:16564.
Fabrication and hemocompatibility assessment of novel polyurethane-based bio-nanofibrous dressing loaded with honey and Carica papaya extract for the management of burn injuries. Orientation of fibers in electrospun PU and PU-HN-PA bio-nanofibrous membranes. Abbreviations: HN, honey; PA, Carica papaya; PU, polyurethane. Arunpandian Balaji, et al. Int J Nanomedicine. 2016;11:4339-4355.

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