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KALE - Brassica oleracea

There are 71 good studies at Kale. Here's a selection:
Abstracts with Kale Research

Kale juice significantly improves blood lipid profiles in hypercholesterolemic men.
Abstract Title:
Kale juice improves coronary artery disease risk factors in hypercholesterolemic men.
Abstract Source:
Biomed Environ Sci. 2008 Apr;21(2):91-7. PMID: 18548846
Abstract Author(s):
Soo Yeon Kim, Sun Yoon, Soo Mi Kwon, Kye Sook Park, Yang Cha Lee-Kim
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of 3-month kale (Brassica oleracea acephala) juice supplementation on coronary artery disease risk factors among hypercholesterolemic men. METHODS: Thirty-two men with hypercholesterolemia (> 200 mg/dL) were recruited after annual health examinations among the faculty and staff at university. The subjects consumed 150 mL of kale juice per day for a 12-week intervention period. Dietary and anthropometric assessments were performed and blood samples were collected to evaluate biochemical profiles before and after supplementation. RESULTS: Serum concentrations of HDL-cholesterol, and HDL- to LDL-cholesterol ratio were significantly increased by 27% (P<0.0001) and 52% (P<0.0001), respectively. The LDL-cholesterol concentration and the atherogenic index were significantly reduced by 10% (P=0.0007) and 24.2% (P<0.0001), respectively without affecting body mass index, waist and hip circumferences, or nutrient intakes after three months of supplementation. While there was no difference in the concentration of malondialdehyde, significant increase in glutathione peroxidase activity (P=0.0005) were accompanied by a significant increase in the serum selenium level (P=0.0132). It was also found that the responses of these risk factors to kale juice administration were dependent on smoking status. CONCLUSION: Regular meals supplementation with kale juice can favorably influence serum lipid profiles and antioxidant systems, and hence contribute to reduce the risks of coronary artery disease in male subjects with hyperlipidemia.
Article Published Date : Apr 01, 2008
Study Type : Human Study
Additional Links
Substances : Kale : CK(53) : AC(7)
Diseases : Cholesterol: High : CK(1226) : AC(195), HDL: Low : CK(305) : AC(50), High Cholesterol : CK(1774) : AC(271), Hypercholesterolemia : CK(1428) : AC(227)


High intake of fruit during adolescence could be associated with a lower risk of breast cancer.
Abstract Title:
Fruit and vegetable consumption in adolescence and early adulthood and risk of breast cancer: population based cohort study.
Abstract Source:
BMJ. 2016 ;353:i2343. Epub 2016 May 11. PMID: 27170029
Abstract Author(s):
Maryam S Farvid, Wendy Y Chen, Karin B Michels, Eunyoung Cho, Walter C Willett, A Heather Eliassen
Article Affiliation:
Maryam S Farvid
OBJECTIVE:  To evaluate the association between fruit and vegetable intake during adolescence and early adulthood and risk of breast cancer.
DESIGN:  Prospective cohort study.
SETTING:  Health professionals in the United States.
PARTICIPANTS:  90 476 premenopausal women aged 27-44 from the Nurses' Health Study II who completed a questionnaire on diet in 1991 as well as 44 223 of those women who completed a questionnaire about their diet during adolescence in 1998.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE:  Incident cases of invasive breast cancer, identified through self report and confirmed by pathology report.
RESULTS:  There were 3235 cases of invasive breast cancer during follow-up to 2013. Of these, 1347 cases were among women who completed a questionnaire about their diet during adolescence (ages 13-18). Total fruit consumption during adolescence was associated with a lower risk of breast cancer. The hazard ratio was 0.75 (95% confidence interval 0.62 to 0.90; P=0.01 for trend) for the highest (median intake 2.9 servings/day) versus the lowest (median intake 0.5 serving/day) fifth of intake. The association for fruit intake during adolescence was independent of adult fruit intake. There was no association between risk and total fruit intake in early adulthood and total vegetable intake in either adolescence or early adulthood. Higher early adulthood intake of fruits and vegetables rich in α carotene was associated with lower risk of premenopausal breast cancer. The hazard ratio was 0.82 (0.70 to0.96) for the highest fifth (median intake 0.5 serving/day) versus the lowest fifth (median intake 0.03 serving/day) intake. The association with adolescent fruit intake was stronger for both estrogen and progesterone receptor negative cancers than estrogen and progesterone receptor positive cancers(P=0.02 for heterogeneity). For individual fruits and vegetables, greater consumption of apple, banana, and grapes during adolescence and oranges and kale during early adulthood was significantly associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer. Fruit juice intake in adolescence or early adulthood was not associated with risk.
CONCLUSION:  There is an association between higher fruit intake and lower risk of breast cancer. Food choices during adolescence might be particularly important.
Article Published Date : Dec 31, 2015
Study Type : Human Study
Additional Links
Substances : Apples : CK(374) : AC(100), Banana : CK(239) : AC(75), Fruit: All : CK(4608) : AC(976), Grape : CK(2355) : AC(625), Kale : CK(53) : AC(7), Vegetables: All : CK(1489) : AC(156)
Diseases : Breast Cancer : CK(3592) : AC(1064)
Additional Keywords : Risk Reduction : CK(6417) : AC(686)

More links:

A physical map of Brassica oleracea shows complexity of chromosomal changes following recursive paleopolyploidizations.

Kale - Brassica oleracea
PubMed comprises more than 28 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. 
In PubMed
There are  17345 on Kale.
There are 2097 on Brassica oleracea.

9 Diseases Researched for Kale 
Prostate Cancer: Prevention120
Breast Cancer110
Cholesterol: High110
HDL: Low110
High Cholesterol110
Dioxin Toxicity12
Furan Toxicity12

2 Pharmacological Actions Researched for Kale

Anticarcinogenic Agents120

Gene Ontology (GO) mapping of cabbage genes using the sequence of the Brassica oleracea genome and 425 BRP based on the Brassica rapa genome.. From: Comparative Analysis of Disease-Linked Single Nucleotide Polymorphic Markers from Brassica rapa for Their Applicability to Brassica oleracea . Young-Il Cho, et al. PLoS One. 2015;10(3):e012016
Syntenic block comparative analysis in Brassica oleracea mtDNAs.. From: Whole-genome sequencing of Brassica oleracea var. capitata reveals new diversity of the mitogenome. The map was generated using Circos. (a) Syntenic block of B. oleracea mtDNA ‘AP012988’ with three other B. oleracea mtDNAs. (b) Syntenic block of B. oleracea mtDNA ‘KJ820683’ with three other B. oleracea mtDNAs. (c) Syntenic block of B. oleracea mtDNA ‘JF920286’ with three other B. oleracea mtDNAs. (d) Syntenic block of B. oleracea mtDNA ‘KU831325’ with three other B. oleracea mtDNAs. Kiwoung Yang, et al. PLoS One. 2018;13(3):e0194356
The Secret Life of Kale

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