medforsk laboratories    Research and development      guarantees/certificates  

Public studies on ingredients:
Animal Study, Bacterial, Human In Vitro, Human Study, In Vitro Study.

Research & Studies:

"Do not tell everything. You can be stopped. Truth is not in everyone's interest."

Morphology of Chlorella spp. under light microscope.. From: A comparison of the morphological and biochemical characteristics of Chlorella sorokiniana and Chlorella zofingiensis cultured under photoautotrophic and mixotrophic conditions. (A) Chlorella sorokiniana in photoautotrophic condition, (B) Chlorella sorokiniana in mixotrophic condition, (C) Chlorella zofingiensis in photoautotrophic condition and (D) Chlorella zofingiensis in mixotrophic condition. Scale bar 10 µm. Siti Nor Ani Azaman, et al. PeerJ. 2017;5:e3473

42 Pharmacological Actions Researched for Chlorella

Antidepressive Agents220
Anti-Inflammatory Agents415
Insulin Sensitizers212
Anti-Anxiety Agents110
Antiviral Agents110
Interleukin-1 beta upregulation110
Interleukin-12 upregulation110
MicroRNA modulator110
Nitric Oxide Enhancer110
Anticholesteremic Agents12
Antineoplastic Agents12
Catalase Up-Regulation12
Cell cycle arrest12
Detoxifier: Radionuclide Removal12
Glutathione Upregulation12
Interleukin-1 alpha upregulation12
Interleukin-1 beta downregulation12
Interleukin-4 downregulation12
Superoxide Dismutase Up-regulation12
Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) Alpha Upregulation12
Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Inhibitors12
Bcl-2 protein down-regulation11
Hypoglycemic Agents11
Interleukin-6 Downregulation11
Nitric Oxide Inhibitor11
Prostaglandin PGE2 downregulation11
Telomerase Upregulation11
Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) Alpha Inhibitor11
Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 Upregulation11

Conserved gene clusters between the Helicosporidium and Chlorella genomes.. From: A Lack of Parasitic Reduction in the Obligate Parasitic Green Alga Helicosporidium . Only syntenic clusters from the ten largest Helicosporidium contigs are shown. Genes from Helicosporidium are shown on top; Chlorella genes are shown below. Locus_tag prefixes (Helicosporidium, H632_; Chlorella, CHLNDRAFT_) were omitted for clarity (see Data S2 for PFAM product names). The corresponding contigs (Helicosporidium) or scaffolds (Chlorella) are indicated on the left; in the Chlorella scaffolds, adjacent genes are not always labelled incrementally. Genes that are absent from the other genome are colored in light gray. Genes that have been relocated are shown in dark gray. Partial genes are indicated by double daggers (‡). In Helicosporidium the c9p0 gene, indicated by an asterisk, is predicted as a single entity encompassing the Chlorella 32522 and 36846 genes. Jean-François Pombert, et al. PLoS Genet. 2014 May;10(5):e1004355
Ecotoxicological effects of carbon nanotubes and cellulose nanofibers in Chlorella vulgaris. TEM results of Chlorella vulgaris exposed to different nanoparticles at 100 μg ml−1 for 48 hours.C. vulgaris cell cultured with Bold’s basal (BB) culture medium only (A), C. vulgaris cell cultured with Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in BB culture medium (B), C. vulgaris cell cultured with cotton cellulose nanofibers (CNFs) in BB culture medium (C); C. vulgaris cell cultured with Seine river water only (D), C. vulgaris cell cultured with MWCNT in Seine river water (E), C. vulgaris cell cultured with cotton CNFs in Seine river water (F). MWCNTs (small black tubes) are inside the cell (B) while there is no evidence of cotton CNFs was found inside the cells. Black arrows: extracellular MWCNTs or cotton CNF; white arrows: intracellular MWCNTs. Michele M Pereira, et al. J Nanobiotechnology. 2014;12:15-15
Chlorella 11-Peptide Inhibits the Production of Macrophage-Induced Adhesion Molecules and Reduces Endothelin-1 Expression and Endothelial Permeability . Effects of Chlorella 11-peptide on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1) production. RAW264.7 cells (n = 8) were treated with LPS (1 µg/mL) with and without Chlorella 11-peptide (9 and 38 µM) or indomethacin (0.25 mM) for 6 h prior to MCP-1 concentration being measured. Statistics are shown for LPS-treated cells ### p < 0.005, compared to the basal; 38 µM of Chlorella 11-peptide *** p < 0.005 and 9 M of Chlorella 11-peptide and indomethacin * p < 0.05, compared to LPS-stimulated group. Mei Fen Shih, et al. Mar Drugs. 2013 Oct;11(10):3861-3874
Chlorella and Spirulina Found to Treat Viral Hepatitis C
Toxic...and Don't Know?
Foundations of a New Medicine We Can Not Afford to Ignore

Chlorella - Chlorella Vulgaris

There are 59 good studies at Chlorella. Here's a selection:
Abstracts with Chlorella Research

Chlorella supplementation detoxifies heterocyclic amines in young Korean adults.
Abstract Title:
Detoxification of chlorella supplement on heterocyclic amines in Korean young adults.
Abstract Source:
Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. 2015 Jan ;39(1):441-6. Epub 2014 Dec 3. PMID: 25590673
Abstract Author(s):
Inyeong Lee, Minhphuong Tran, Theresa Evans-Nguyen, Dawn Stickle, Soyeon Kim, Jaegab Han, Jong Y Park, Mihi Yang
Article Affiliation:
Inyeong Lee
Heterocyclic amines (HCAs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been established as carcinogenic chemicals in Western diet. This study was performed to estimate HCA exposure levels in Korean daily life and to assess the ability of Chlorella vulgaris to detoxify carcinogenic HCAs in a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled crossover study with chlorella supplement (N=6, all females, age: 27.17±7.73yr) for 2 weeks. We analyzed HCAs in hydrolyzed urine specimens using LC/TOF-MS. As results, urinary levels of MeIQx, PhIP, and IQx-8-COOH were 323.36±220.11ng/L, 351.59±254.93ng/L, and 130.85±83.22ng/L, respectively. Effects of chlorella to reduce urinary MeIQx were marginally significant(before, 430±226.86pg/mL vs. after, 174.45±101.65pg/mL: 0.05
Article Published Date : Dec 31, 2014
Study Type : Human Study
Additional Links
Substances : Chlorella (Algae) : CK(228) : AC(49)
Diseases : Heterocyclic Aromatic Amine Induced Toxicity : CK(15) : AC(6)
Pharmacological Actions : Chemopreventive : CK(2835) : AC(787), Detoxifier : CK(408) : AC(131)
Additional Keywords : Detoxification, Significant Treatment Outcome : CK(3038) : AC(366)
Vitamin B12 in chlorella is bioavailable and dietary supplementation is a natural way for vegetarians and vegans to get the vitamin B12 they need.
Abstract Title:
Nutritional Supplementation with Chlorella pyrenoidosa Lowers Serum Methylmalonic Acid in Vegans and Vegetarians with a Suspected Vitamin B12 Deficiency.
Abstract Source:
J Med Food. 2015 Oct 20. Epub 2015 Oct 20. PMID: 26485478
Abstract Author(s):
Randall Edward Merchant, Todd W Phillips, Jay Udani
Article Affiliation:
Randall Edward Merchant
Since vitamin B12 occurs in substantial amounts only in foods derived from animals, vegetarians and particularly vegans are at risk of developing deficiencies of this essential vitamin. The chlorella used for this study is a commercially available whole-food supplement, which is believed to contain the physiologically active form of the vitamin. This exploratory open-label study was performed to determine if adding 9 g of Chlorella pyrenoidosa daily could help mitigate a vitamin B12 deficiency in vegetarians and vegans. Seventeen vegan or vegetarian adults (26-57 years of age) with a known vitamin B12 deficiency, as evidenced by a baseline serum methylmalonic acid (MMA) level above 270 nmol/L at screening,but who otherwise appeared healthy were enrolled in the study. Each participant added 9 g of C. pyrenoidosa to their daily diet for 60 ± 5 days and their serum MMA, vitamin B12, homocysteine (Hcy) levels as well as mean corpuscular volume (MCV), hemoglobin (Hgb), and hematocrit (Hct) were measured at 30 and 60 days from baseline. After 30 and 60 days, the serum MMA level fell significantly (P < .05) by an average ∼34%. Fifteen of the 17 (88%) subjects showed at least a 10% drop in MMA. At the same time, Hcy trended downward and serum vitamin B12 trended upward, while MCV, Hgb, and Hct appeared unchanged. The results of this work suggest that the vitamin B12 in chlorella is bioavailable and such dietary supplementation is a natural way for vegetarians and vegans to get the vitamin B12 they need.
Article Published Date : Oct 19, 2015
Study Type : Human Study
Additional Links
Substances : Chlorella (Algae) : CK(228) : AC(49)
Diseases : Vitamin B 12 Deficiency : CK(301) : AC(46)
Therapeutic Actions : Dietary Modification: Vegetarian : CK(226) : AC(25)
Additional Keywords : Supplementation : CK(413) : AC(60)

C. vulgaris possesses significant anti-inflammatory activity and could be a potential anti-inflammatory agent of natural origin.
Abstract Title:
Inhibition of Pro-inflammatory Mediators and Cytokines by Chlorella Vulgaris Extracts.
Abstract Source:
Pharmacognosy Res. 2016 Apr-Jun;8(2):118-22. PMID: 27034602
Abstract Author(s):
G Sibi, Santa Rabina
Article Affiliation:
G Sibi
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the in vitro anti-inflammatory activities of solvent fractions from Chlorella vulgaris by inhibiting the production of pro-inflammatory mediators and cytokines.
METHODS: Methanolic extracts (80%) of C. vulgaris were prepared and partitioned with solvents of increasing polarity viz., n-hexane, chloroform, ethanol, and water. Various concentrations of the fractions were tested for cytotoxicity in RAW 264.7 cells using 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, and the concentrations inducing cell growth inhibition by about 50% (IC50) were chosen for further studies. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated RAW 264.7 cells were treated with varying concentrations of C. vulgaris fractions and examined for its effects on nitric oxide (NO) production by Griess assay. The release of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin 6 (IL-6) were quantified using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using Celecoxib and polymyxin B as positive controls.
RESULTS: MTT assay revealed all the solvent fractions that inhibited cell growth in a dose-dependent manner. Of all the extracts, 80% methanolic extract exhibited the strongest anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting NO production (P<0.01), PGE2 (P<0.05), TNF-α, and IL-6 (P<0.001) release in LPS induced RAW 264.7 cells. Both hexane and chloroform fractions recorded a significant (P<0.05) and dose-dependent inhibition of LPS induced inflammatory mediators and cytokines in vitro. The anti-inflammatory effect of ethanol and aqueous extracts was not significant in the study.
CONCLUSION: The significant inhibition of inflammatory mediators and cytokines by fractions from C. vulgaris suggests that this microalga would be a potential source of developing anti-inflammatory agents and a good alternate for conventional steroidal and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
SUMMARY: C. vulgaris extracts have potential anti-inflammatory activitySolvent extraction using methanol, hexane, and chloroform has exhibited significant effect in LPS activated RAW 264.7 cellsC. vulgaris extracts reduce the production of NO, PGE2, TNF-α, and IL-6 in LPS activated RAW 264.7 cells. Abbreviations Used: COX-2: Cyclooxygenase-2, DMSO: Dimethyl sulfoxide, FBS: Fetal bovine serum, IL-6: Interleukin 6, iNOS: Inducible nitric oxide synthase,
L-NMMA: NG-methyl-L-arginine acetate salt, LPS: Lipopolysaccharide, MTT: 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide, NO: Nitric oxide, PBS: Phosphate buffered saline, PGE2: Prostaglandin E2, TNF-α: Tumor necrosis factor-α.
Article Published Date : Mar 31, 2016
Study Type : In Vitro Study
Additional Links
Substances : Chlorella (Algae) : CK(228) : AC(49)
Diseases : Inflammation : CK(3240) : AC(882)
Pharmacological Actions : Anti-Inflammatory Agents : CK(4861) : AC(1630), Interleukin-6 Downregulation : CK(1137) : AC(354), Nitric Oxide Inhibitor : CK(223) : AC(108), Prostaglandin PGE2 downregulation : CK(96) : AC(46), Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) Alpha Inhibitor : CK(1823) : AC(669)
Additional Keywords : Plant Extracts : CK(7645) : AC(2539)

More links :

Comparison of the percentage of cadmium with different treatments carried out: alginate beads without Chlorella sp. (Without Chlorella), and alginate beads with Chlorella sp. ( Chlorella).. From: Analysis of removal of cadmium by action of immobilized Chlorella sp. micro-algae in alginate beads. Christian Valdez, et al. F1000Res. 2018;7:54.


Chlorella - Chlorella Vulgaris

PubMed comprises more than 28 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. 
In PubMed
There are  5959 on Chlorella.
There are 1807 on C.Vulgaris

76 Diseases Researched for Chlorella
Dioxin Toxicity212
Vitamin B 12 Deficiency212
Anxiety Disorders110
Arterial Hardening: Elasticity110
Depressive Disorder110
Hepatitis C110
Heterocyclic Aromatic Amine Induced Toxicity110
Human Influenza110
Hypertension: Pre-Eclampsia Induced110
Influenza in Humans110
Influenza: Human110
Low Immune Function: Exercise-Induced110
Menopausal Syndrome110
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)110
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) toxicity110
Postmenopausal Disorders110
Pregnancy Complications110
Salivary SIgA Secretion: Reduced110
Spinal Cord Inflammation110
Spinal Cord Injuries110
Weight Problems110
Chemically-Induced Liver Damage24
Diabetes Mellitus: Type 124
Oxidative Stress34
Liver Cancer23
Allergy: Cow's Milk12
Atopic Dermatitis12
Biliary Obstruction12
Bone Marrow Suppression12
Breast Cancer12
C-Reactive Protein12
Cadmium Poisoning12
Cerebral Stroke12
Diabetes: Cataract12
Dysmyelopoietic Syndromes12
Fructose-Induced Toxicity12
Gastric Ulcer12
Immune Dysregulation: TH1/TH2 imbalance12
Insulin Resistance12
Lead Poisoning12
Listeria Infections12
Liver Damage12
Liver Disease12
Low Immune Function: Natural Killer Cells12
Mercury Poisoning12
Neutropenia: Cyclic12
Peptic Ulcer12
Prenatal Chemical Exposures12
Prenatal Nutrition: Learning/Intelligence of Offspring12
Radiation-Induced Illness: Strontium 9012
Short Bowel Syndrome12
Stroke: Prevention12
Ulcer: Stress-Induced12
Advanced Glycation End products (AGE)11
Cancers: All11
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease11
DNA damage11

Potential of Fluorescence Imaging Techniques To Monitor Mutagenic PAH Uptake by Microalga. (A) Confocal microscopy image of Chlorella cells showing background photosystem fluorescence. (B) Confocal microscopy image showing BaP fluorescence in Chlorella cells. (C) Overlap of Chlorella sp. background fluorescence and BaP fluorescence (scale bar = 20 μm). (D) Higher-magnification image showing fluorescence of BaP inside Chlorella sp. cells (scale bar = 5 μm). (E) Confocal microscopy image of a Chlorella cell showing pictate staining of BaP fluorescence. (F) Confocal microscopy image of a Chlorella cell showing the lipid-specific fluorescent stain Nile red. Suresh Ramraj Subashchandrabose, et al. Environ Sci Technol. 2014 Aug 19;48(16):9152-9160
The Chlorella Genome: Big Surprises from a Small Package.  Chlorella endosymbionts inside the single-celled protozoan Paramecium bursaria. Nancy A. Eckardt. Plant Cell. 2010 Sep;22(9):2924-2924.
The Chlorella Genome: Big Surprises from a Small Package. Chlorella endosymbionts inside the single-celled protozoan Paramecium bursaria. Nancy A. Eckardt. Plant Cell. 2010 Sep;22(9):2924-2924.

Stockholm - Charlottenberg - Hamburg - Copenhagen - Oslo - London